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Kohn, Alfie. "No Contest: A Case Against Competition." New Age Journal, September/October 1986, pp. 18-20.
Link is to a summary version of the study (which drew on hundreds of other studies and was later published as a book,
Kohn, Alfie. No Contest: The Case Against Competition. Houghton Mifflin, 1986/1992.).
Key words for general search: "No Contest," "Case Against Competition," "Alfie Kohn"
Shermer, Michael. "Can a Scientific Utopia Succeed?" Scientific American, Volume 310, Issue 2, Feb 1, 2014.
Article originally published as "Heavens On Earth."
- From the article (key: 3.5% of the population as possible critical mass),
- "Only a small percentage of a population is necessary to bring about change: "No single campaigns failed after they'd achieved the active and sustained participation of just 3.5 percent of the population." And if they surpassed the 3.5 percent threshold, all were nonviolent and "often much more inclusive and representative in terms of gender, age, race, political party, class, and the urban-rural distinction.""